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Heritage Hebrew In Romania



The Hebrew cultural heritage has a different relevance in the context of community approaches to recognize the roots of Europe’s Christian Jewish roots.

Logic is that Balfour should have expressed himself so British in the context of the famous Statement, such as: nowadays we all have a great debt to the Hebrews and we have paid very poorly.

If we would try to imagine today’s world without the consequences of the Hebrew input the results would be fantastic. One on the first science-fiction writings, extracted in the profile anthologies, tells about a time traveler that once he arrived in the middle of the Battle of Waterloo, kills a soldier and then he suddenly vanishes in the thin air because he was the descendent of the soldier. A consequent anti-Semitism can only have as a last binding consequence also the destruction of Christianity (as it seems that history already sketched a demonstration of it). Let us now imagine, again, such a world and judge this knowingly.

On the other hand, do not forget, you wear on the wings of enthusiasm generally specific for neophytes and brought at paroxysm by the contemporary sinism, it seems that the origin and the number of concepts and interdictions makes it hard not only to be a Hebrew, but also to truly learn from them (if you don’t pay the full price of the "Covenant" and there is a certain unanimity associating the skills of Apostle Paul in easiness the "yoke of Torah"), as we are recently recommended by a well know person of ours ( which ignores the example of so many different meanings, for example, the ones of the Jewish New Year and from other religions and numberless servitudes of Jew condition), and I think the same reasons (and not from personal considerations or opening to us a field outside the joint expertise of specific elites) our speech hasn’t always met the intimate unanimity of those who have received it.

On the other hand, we have the feeling that the resort of this Jewish world and the hope against the ideational entropy lies precisely in the duality and millennial oscillation between specific individualization and the extreme outwards opening. These already corroborates with a traditional vision (to quote, for the Transylvanian area, only St. Stephen stating that the minorities are the fortune of any country…).

The subject "memory and forgetting" is crucial for the moment that we are crossing because he’s marking the transition from a postmodern historicism at the cultural global of the XXI century, going beyond even cultural anthropology and the spatial dimension of the "planetary country" concept available today due to electronic media and satellite delivery systems, will also gain temporary dimension in the sense of simultaneity.

Romanian particularities have been, until now, the fallowing: an impressive architectural heritage, an larger number of people that survived the second world war then in the neighboring countries, but quickly aged and diminished very fast by emigration/ Alia, a state of poverty and chronic vicissitude which made (at the Joint moment and in accordance with the religious Judaic perceptions) us to visualize the difference between people and monuments, with the result that nowadays the predominant situation is the one of a heritage which became extremely vulnerable in that it remained without the proper community (in the province, in most villages are real events, yet, the birth of a child or rose ceremonies).

The most obvious result is that the results of restoration-conservation of the Hebrew heritage have been, until recently, less numerous and the ones of conversion were very rare compared with the international ones. Loyalty and commitment that the Jews shown for Romania, throughout history, are more obvious than such and such incrimination that returns , generally, in times of need through a subliminal mechanism already dismantled, their individuality is obvious, natural and not in vain, proselytism being contrary to the spirit of ethnicity (which had to fight get out of the ghetto and believes that your human nature multiplies by the number of the languages you know) like the annexation of some cultural elements of the others.

These make that the attitude regarding conservation of the Hebrew cultural heritage to be generalized extremely favorable and consistent with the spirit of time, and the solution that international specialized organizations found, require that the cultural and artistic heritage of a territory to be assumed by the entire population as a given and common wealth of mankind, is also accepted internally.


From our point of view, teaching initiatives regarding the Hebrew heritage in Romania, as a value that enriches the Romanian culture, are as important as the introduction in the curriculum of courses on the Holocaust, in that it promotes obvious positive elements and creates feelings of co-participation. That is why I gave the example of medieval synagogue restoration in Hania/Crete, which discloses through promotion (including internet) the concept of exclusion and inherent adversity of the heritage as “land book extract” and subtitles the actual concept of “cultural heritage of the entire humanity”.

We believe that the Hebrew cultural heritage is likely to survive if it would also been based on educating the population in which it is found and creates a generally climate of participation and cooperation.

The program manager had created in the ‘90s on the legit of Hebrew institute "Dr. Moshe Carmilly" of the Babes-Bolyai university the course of Architecture History and Hebrew Art which operated for several years included in transcripts of several promotions.

Within the present PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMS, we could cite as educational area of activities and attraction for the young researchers the following:

  • The "History of Architecture" class, the first year from FAU-UTCN, fallowed every year by 120-130 students and which includes the History of Architecture and Hebrew Arts module (about 1/8 of the students presenting drawings from this area and a test during the course from this area)
  • In each academic year, during the project, at least 15 students have opted to do our research practice in this annual PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM.
  • Within "Design Synthesis" class in the fourth year from FAU-UTCN, followed by about 120-130 students annually, one of the four projects aimed at taking advantage of some elements of architectural heritage – see theme and images attached.
  • By the end, it supported two Diploma projects aiming restoration and enhancement through new construction of community Hebrew complexes from Cluj-Napoca and Oradea, those been published and communicated at scientific meetings – see the text and images attached.
  • The project manager is leading three Thesis aiming the management and use of historical heritage and Judaism
  • The postgraduate course for Urban and local government introduced a program director regarding the topic of religious building in villages, chosen by about one third of 20-30 students. We find that there is something notable for more than half of students are from the Local Government system and are decision makers – see attached theme.
  • The program manager sustained, within the postgraduate course of restoration of historic buildings from Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, the Synagogues module and Hebrew heritage of Romania.
  • Within the research team of UTCN, the coordinator had attracted for researching young people aged under 35: 1 doctor, 13 doctoral students and many students in each academic year (here we could put "countless" when we see the records in question in front)


In the history of mankind, the iron spear of knowledge was frequently associated with the architecture and construction came from it. It is enough to remind the ’’secrets’’ bound of professionalism (including ‘’Foucault’s pendulum’’ indentified in the Maze in the Cathedral from Chartres, the evolution from operative to speculative or other initializing esoteric), the way it was integrated until Reborn and it reintegrated in Modernism the plastic arts or the stylistic cultural theory along the examples about the state of the architect in that era or with parts of that eras.

Let’s remind, also, how F. L. Wright told that in childhood the thing that determined him to become an architect was the early reading of the book ‘’This will kill the one Notre Dame from Paris’’ of Victor Hugo, by the romantic concept of architecture ‘’book of nations’’ long before the XX century called linguistic a “rough science’’, from whom It will evolve the structuralism and the semiotic architecture.

On the other hand, different from the nationalisms of the XX century, the politico-state from the XX century and the cult for the heritage built made the transformation of the concept of heritage imperative – ‘’land book extract’’ in the one of ‘’heritage of all humanity’’. When I was narrating in other occasions about our years as representing the characteristics of a new Medieval Age, I could have also mentioned about the new cultural tourism pilgrimages, by their mass character.

From the second half of the XX century, along with passing from modernism to postmodernism (beyond the strict architectural void with the same name), the entrance in postmodernism era, the democratization of the leisure and the great demographic migrations, passing from the cultures war to ‘’seduction through culture’’ and countless reversals of values would have produced a paradoxical mutation through architecture has come to be recognized as a ‘’resource’’.

Should we take advantage of the present to discuss about this?

Contemporary aesthetical developments had generated and other mutations.

Thereby, it is recognized as certain some liability in assessing the limits of nowadays art and that one of the causes could be a certain loss of collective aesthetic consciousness, of some reliability – of a common platform of aesthetical appreciation that would have characterized the world until now one hundred years.

When there is this diversity of artistic events and the unequal people’s access to their message, the causes were indentified in education, social environment of provenience and national specific.

Therefore, architecture and its picture in the urban frame tends to become a platform of reunion for it is interacting functionally and quasi-permanent somewhat unifying with all the members of these cultures and sub-cultures that coexist in multiculturalism and sometimes ignores or hates themselves more or less cordial. The apostles of syncretism or those who ultimately profit vent elements between these cultures are replacing Silk Road and Marco Polo nowadays.

It is recognized that the essential for traditional aesthetics “primacy of the complex emotions –mood-feelings generated from the simple contemplation and notwithstanding the use value of human creations”.

It states that, in this context would be important to conduct a general delineation of art and non-art and define its specify in nowadays, yet share an expression of history.

Some authors attribute alteration of the traditional consensus on mutations produced by the transition from craft to industry-respectively the industrial production of helpful forms. The association of art with artisanal was due to the synonym of Greek antiquity between art and craft “universe of shapes obtained by processing various materials according to certain rules, with certain canons, required well-defined techniques to be implemented, just would guarantee best results”.

It would be a new pattern in which would delineate as distinct stages: ideation, form conception, the prototype-a single transposition of the idea of material, reproduction of its validation. Creativity should be recognized and confined exclusively in the prototype and they could access because of its visual qualities museum circuit. The problem is that the series copies, reproduced, can be coincident with the prototype.

Artistic establishment (developed by some aestheticians) would be followed by the establishment of standard industrial art and an important part of modern art would have been dedicated to “escape” from it at all costs, this excess leading to the identification of originality, sought at any price, with the novelty and use of entire arsenal belonging to the challenge, stupefying, to achieve maximum impact. On the other hand, during the post-industrial the production has become so flexible and able to customize the product that the combinatorial provoking the limits of the current human perception.

However the most important problem would lie in the dissociation of non-art as an exacerbation of an ambiguity of order (the art took the meanings of technical, mimesis, catharsis, where the persistence of expression like the art of love , martial arts, culinary art), exaggerated today, once by asserting the specify of art and then the desire to break with tradition problematic took the form of flare-ups effectively profane, evolving towards art destruction and denial of the art concept and then using history as a method of modeling. Symptomatic is the space dedicated to the aesthetics of Heidegger to these ancient terms. Hope some of that in today’s artistic thinking, dominated by the binary logic of computers, would be the only reserve of otherness seems overly optimistic when we see the share of collage in postmodernism (beyond the architectural current with the same name and already revolute), not exclude that we could find in a position of the first “modern” in the Middle Ages: a world where art would be dead and the religion of chaos, of deceiving and lack of sense, would be an expression of mercantilism, the pact of two characters in which one buys and one sells. By the mid-twentieth century, architecture was seen as a consuming and especially a wasteful of national resources, the representatives of The Anthropological School of Strasbourg suggesting similarities to “ruin the gift” of primitive societies and historians summoning the hungers associated with the constructions, from the Pyramids to the People house ( passing through Versailles, etc.).

Contemporary expansion of beauty is regarded as having the attributes of globalization affecting almost all spheres where humanity is present. For us, the phenomenon does not seem surprising, as shown by some authors, but rather normal: if associated the aesthetic of human creativity and recognized our time reversal relationship between natural and synthetic environment in favor of the latter, it seems perfectly logical that aesthetics to propagate at least proportionally.

For us, the text of Hugo Spirito (Art nel mondo della scienza e della tecnica) on the extension of aesthetic concerns on clothing and habitat areas, some swift to what was previously considered secondary or accessory (bathrooms, kitchens) and the predominance of visual is not a surprise, especially if we are supporting the globalization of beautiful in the contemporary world. We have been talked in university about problems or beautiful “solutions”, it promotes “computer architecture”, “architecture of the new Europe” or “architecture of the new Romania”, a storehouse with a certain amount or term, becomes “product” to release some consciousness of the burden of usury sin and the examples may continue. All this shows a model of social status and to mirror the individualities Renaissance aesthetics, which to escape from the guild aspiring courtiers and scholars – discourse writers.

Another mutation regards increasing the amount of time available and the one reserved for aesthetic experiences. Gheorghe Achiţei considered decades ago that: “There are three broad categories of visual forms in the sense that the future is suitable, the Atari grounds to be investigated: the category of work status forms, the category of forms with object status, the category of forms with image status”.

An elite reaction may sound like Jean Molino (L’art aujourd’hui): “today’s art can be anything, anyone can paint but nobody knows how to think. Here chairs are arranged, there a blanket with spots of paint is installed, further down are lay everywhere regular bands of color, there are always to see and buy, others to write catalogs, analyze and praise masterpieces, others to love what they see and others, of course, to clips that they don’t understand anything. You have to laugh, to cry? Enthusiasts continue to discover, to comment on what they are informed and marvel at the richness, the diffusion of art, ancient or modern: 500,000 visitors for the exhibition X, Y painting worth few billions, many money orders, official or private. Long live the culture sir, and how Tartuffe already said: “It is working today in a miraculous way” .But behold, the angry spirits before them mutter: art is already dead – Hegel was right – horrors are crowding in museums, anybody can paint without ever being taught to paint, and all the hierarchies, all the values are confused into an endless Sabbath night in which no one manages to recognize each other. Between these two extreme attitudes, which incarnate themselves into distinct topologies, lays the thing, you and I alike; movements on the map are distributed, masters who accept and refuse each other.

Let us not forget that Hegel’s “faire-part” has been reedited several times and art continues to manifest itself, its truth changes.

Some have systematized the contemporary expansion of the fine and beautiful thus:

  • Expansion through shapes taken from art: Odd enough, it is in the arts where there’s a retention regarding the expansion of beauty, retention explained by the fact that contemporary aesthetics attributes itself as object or level of approach rather the aesthetics than the beautiful (not referring only to aesthetics consecrated to the ugly or the development of the Hegelian idea of the death of art). Regarding the expansion of art caused by museums and other such institutions (which are too of architecture domain; let us not forget that almost all architectural tenors created museums, the majority demolishing the traditional functionality of the program), tourism mobility, dedicating part of our free time in developing or integrating art in the ambient, and the omnipresence of mass media, we find ourselves in the domain of certitude and can formulate that, under this aspect, art has become a daily presence in the life of an individual.
  • Expansion through forms with a statute of industrial or crafting object: Unstoppable proliferation of objects, often those produced industrially or by craft, and it has been told of a subtle subjugation of humanity by these objects, of possession as a sole purpose, a way to define the state of a person in society, structuring free time largely (therefore the appearance of the all known alienation theory) – the architectural component being well represented. The objects receive a polyvalence in which to the utilitarian is added playfulness, cultural connotations and an increased and permanent aesthetic interest. If at the beginning, art has made access difficult and, through cost, one of the ways of resolving this problem being found in the art of public spaces and creation of museums, recent times have learned of a increase in availability of materials of a bigger proportion of population and a difference in prices of fine art. The playful component is related to the growth of an individual’s free time (and leisure) correlated with technological advances (the gadget found at the intersection of the playful with the functional and aesthetical, often in an architectural space, DIYs and souvenirs).
  • The image as a vector of contemporary expansion of the beautiful: Modern times have added a new significance to the traditional dissociation between image and object (the object presents itself and the image would always represent something). The importance of the image would flow from the impact of souvenirs, recordings, slideshows, movies, reproductions that reveal the artistically form and does not circulate it within. We know more and more about realities that we did not acknowledge without limits, reality is covered by a sterilized image, processed and often architectonic in nature. The last half of this century and the crisis have also consecrated a tendency which was long desired to be dominant, of a damnation of consumption (of objects, images, even spiritual configurations) as an aberration leading to the alienation of man from nature and its ideals and values (illustrated by Erich Fromm Escape of Freedom, To Have or to Be, Max Horkheimer Dialetktik der Aufklarung – with Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse Eros and Civilization, One dimensional Man). The abjection of the ugly present wherever is sometimes seen as a source of alienation because, philosophically we can accept this hypothesis as something entropic, an energetically death of the aesthetical universe, but we believe we are still far away from such an imbalance. Furthermore, aesthetics accepted long time ago the expressiveness of ugly even outside the domain of aesthetics as a system of oppositions; the ugly benefits from reconnaissance, as the beautiful, the opposition is formed more likely with Kitsch, but this needs to be considered in a contemporaneous context.
  • Aesthetical and extra-artistically situations : This modern duality would be described by the case of artistically situations through families of distinct forms that form domains, relatively autonomic, of different arts and similar elements of these would be the originality obtained by humanity through a materialization of a programmatic and direct intention in specifying a material support. The legitimating of an artistically form would flow from the feeling-emotion resulted throughout the process of contemplation, this also being the criteria of satisfaction. Positioning the artistically situations in systems is subjected to a multitude of criteria and those would be, each on its own, independent and studied as such. Furthermore, it is admitted the possibility of mutual contamination and here it is said about nature and patrimonial caring. Situating in the extra-artistically domain can also result from the professional-dilettante ratio. Historically, this ratio evolved from an appreciation of the dilettante to an absolutism of the professional-professional, only for dilettantism to be rebirth by media, leisure and pressure of crisis which can accentuate the architectural side of ‘interpretive art’. Dilettante means he who, without necessary preparations, still emits somewhat activity… There are two types of activities that usually facilitates dilettantism: those which can assure a boost of prestige to someone, a privileged social condition (compared with the one he has in present); and those which can satisfy an unfulfilled passion of someone, under the aspect of accessing activities that imply creativity. There is no such thing as dilettante peasants nor dilettante unqualified-laborers; there are no dilettante housewives. Dilettantism has become a phenomenon of civilization.

Let us return to our subject: From the second half of the 21st century, along with the transition from modernism to postmodernism (beyond the architectural current with the same name), entering the postindustrial era, democratizing leisure and big demographic migrations, passing from the war of cultures to ‘seduction through culture’ and other turn of values produced a paradox mutation through which architecture became known as a ‘resource’.

Regarding brutalization by work from the beginning of the industrial era, post industrialism programmatically reduces work time and expands free time, which cannot still be valued highly and recoverable other than through leisure. Thus, the large migrations of cultural tourism of our times, bringing in the front line of architecture as the ‘book of humanity’ and restoring some urban images and architectural configurations on the migrants’ arrival back home.

Traveling always had the important role of ventilating architectural concepts. Compared architecture offers an abundance of data and shows how constructive and environmental determinisms were overrun just because of knowledge and circulation of models. It has been revealed several times the role of championships or crusades in the medieval era, of pilgrimages to Jerusalem or Mecca to forge a synthesis and continuity in Islamic architecture, of the Jewish European architectural swing before emancipation, of the allogenic contributions to the First Temple of Jerusalem or the Rotunda from the Temple’s Platform and others. Furthermore, globalization and acknowledgement of belonging to a certain community or configuration needed to be expressed; therefore, the architectonical symbolism is renowned as expressivity.

The energy crisis, which allowed the unscrewing of modernism and promoting historicism in postmodernism, operated, initially, through annulling the previous modernist architectural star-system and simplifying the client who wished to obtain architectural collages.

Electronics media and virtual modeling techniques also have a considerable contribution by assuring a flux of information and ways of management along with this abundance of images.

Entering the postindustrial era made flexible the production by a lot and drastically modified the ratio and proportions between cost of production, exploitation, services, etc. The traditional ratio 1 monthly salary/ 1 square meter of construction, altered in emergent economies until the recent crisis, is not prohibitive any longer for architectural and urban expressivity and the silencing has accelerated (with do not venture here with the aspects of money washing). An architectural expression of great impact does not generate lacks and ruins but any longer, but profit and evolution, thus the creation of investing programs of the petrodollar holders.

In our opinion, the war of cultures was occulted, those that have resources passing to ‘seduction through culture’ operate very efficient using architectural images and the coercive measures and blockades of the adversaries in defense cannot operate over the youth to whom the architectural environment is very important (including for procreation). When we make a comparison of the genesis of the medieval age we also evoke the oasis of prosperity besieged by hungry migrates.

Architecture and urbanism remain an eloquent form of expressivity with anthropological value through formalization, after which they have carried over the conceptual shock produced by miniaturization and binary abstracting.


F.C.E.R. real estate patrimony (the absolute value of owners’ real estate) is structured as followed:

  • sacred patrimony – representing the cultural-spiritual heritage of Jews in Romania, integral part of the national and international patrimony
  • goods of community use
  • economical patrimony (portfolio) – the part of the real estate patrimony which has the potential of generating profit

In order to efficiently administrate the patrimony, F.C.E.R. founded in the year 2007, an out sourced unit with unique leadership, Centrul de Administrare a Patrimoniului Imobiliar (C.A.P.I.), having the sectors:

  • Real-estate goods administration: administrating and revaluating patrimony and administrating cemeteries
  • Technical services and Organization of the works: physical rehabilitation of the patrimony and managing the sacred patrimony (synagogues and cemeteries)
  • Development and Rehabilitation of the Patrimony, with determination of the properties that hold a real-estate/economically high potential, to ensure an income close to or equal to the price of the market, „in hopes of increasing the level and widening the specter of F.E.R. services offered to the members of the community” and coordinates:
    • Indexing and updating the portfolio
    • SELF program (approved for Romania 72 000 E/ 100 000 USD, reimbursable fund on long terms, without interest, to rehabilitate with the purpose of increasing the economical efficiency and repositioning in order to value, meaning reinvesting in objectives with a superior economical potential, like rehabilitation and/or acquisition with a high real-estate potential) and the BERG fund (un-reimbursable, for legal assistance with the goal of implementing development strategies: clarifying rights of ownership and tabulation – 125 folders to this day)
    • Elaborating proposals of quantification and development
    • The strategy of rehabilitation, detection and accessing external funds (financing projects) of the portfolio and of the sacred patrimony

Financing sources of C.A.P.I.:

C.A.P.I. would programmatically have at the base of its activities, computerized, the principles of efficiency, collaboration and transparency.

Unfortunately, at this time (2010-2011) the grave effects of the economical and financial crisis, along with the downfall of the real-estate market would profoundly affect the economical activity of C.A.P.I. and would solicitude increased effort and work capacity – with personnel reductions.

The analysis of the F.C.E.R. patrimony stated that the majority of landowning is not yet tabulated under its name and, among other obvious disadvantages; it stops their insurance as according to the law. This is why, at the end of 2009, F.C.E.R. managed to register:

  • Economic patrimony: 1073 local units (București 396, Oradea 154, Timişoara 63, Cluj-Napoca 58, Brăila 56, Rădăuți 48)
  • Lands of community use:
    • 3 centers of Instruction and Recreation (Cristian, Borsec, Eforie)
    • 140 units of community use in which are included the donated lands with cause of usufruct life annuity (which remain in the use of the donors)
    • Jew Comunaction Centres (JCC) in Bucharest, Oradea, Iasi and, in the near future, Timisioara
  • Sacred patrimony:
    • 821 cemeteries, of which: 17 historical monuments; 720 localities with Jewish cemeteries, of which in only 148 Jews still exist and in 650 localities there aren’t any
    • 88 synagogues (39 in Transylvania and Banat; 33 in Moldavia; 14 in Muntenia and Oltenia; 2 in Dobrogea), of which: 43 in function; 6 x-synagogues, desecrated in the communist period; 34 historical monuments

Administrating and revaluating the economical patrimony

In its majority, the real estate patrimony F.C.E.R. would be very old and neglected, thus being taken over (in a poor state) from the donors, rents have been very small until 2004 (O.G. nr. 40/1999) and the tenants did not respect the legal obligations of executing on self expense works of reparation to bring them to a adequate standard – in exchange with a smaller rent compared to the market.

After 2009, the economical crisis annulled the effects of recalculation of rents and contract annexes through which C.A.P.I. limited the value and type of work that could not be deducted from rents on the period of investing.

Properties of community use:

  • Centers of Instruction and Recreation: Cristian 28 places, new villa and donations through JDC; Eforie Nord increased the level of comfort; Borsec renovation and redevelopment of the new villa
  • Investments, with the help of JOINT, in the three Community Clubs
  • Reparations and redevelopments at the communities’ headquarters and utility spaces

The physical rehabilitation of the sacred and economical patrimony:

Although the efforts of precedent years of global investments of the F.C.E.R., for the conservation and rehabilitation of the sacred and economical Patrimony were unprecedented and were doubled by the income of additional funds from sponsors, it is well-known that “The lack of the necessary funds have made the interventions realized by the C.A.P.I. to be limited only to the restoring in high priority of the accidents or the degradations to avoid the continuous degradation of these, although this onset will bring with itself a series of financial consequences later on which will be harder to bare”. Because the majority of the synagogues are highly degraded they are in need of technical expertise, followed by a consolidation project, and only after that at best the reconstruction and consolidation can be done. The actual funds that would be necessary for successfully realizing these projects outrun the possibilities of the Federation or of the sponsors.

Thereby, works of consolidation were finalized, starting with the year 2005, only at the Synagogue in Orastie, at the Orthodox synagogue in Oradea, at the wood synagogue in Piatra-Neamt. Construction was started, right now being in different stages, at the Craftsman’s temple in Galati, at the Great Synagogue in Iasi and the Coral temple in Bucharest.

The Ministry of Culture is involved in funding in the case of the Synagogue in Iasi and the State Secretaryship of Religion has supported works of reconstruction at the: Synagogues in Bacau, Botosani, Carei, Constanta, Craiova, Dorohoi, Sfantu-Gheorghe, Sibiu; and at the cemetery chapels in Alba-Iulia, Bacau, Brasov, Braila, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Constanta, Iasi, Oradea.

A case of collaboration between institutes (Ministry of Culture and Religion and the World Monuments Found-projection) was the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the Synagogue Bal Sem in Piatra-Neamt, historical monument-made of wood.

Issues regarding the Jewish cemeteries in Romania

Cemeteries represent a particularly difficult problem of conservation and storage, financial effort of the F.C.E.R. being around 27 956 Ron in 2005, 528 983 Ron in 2007, 181 200 Ron in 2009. Considering that :”A very difficult problem is the insurance of protection and security of these objectives, because of the huge financial background that is required for the restoring of these, it is impossible for the F.C.E.R. to cover it all, especially in this period, in which we are confronted with an exaltation of vandalism against the Jewish cemeteries (respectively the Cemetery of Giurgiu – October of 2008 – With the help of the “American Jewish Heritage from Abroad” 131 vandalized tombs were reconstructed in the Cemetery of Giurgiu; Botosani and Ploiesti in 2009)”.

There may be a possibility of capitalization of several free lands for graves in cemeteries or the annexed land of the above mentioned and in this manner, F.C.E.R. concluded an agreement of reevaluation of these terrains with a group of Rabins, originating from Romania and established in Israel, England and U.S.A, which will perform their rabbinic expertise for them.

Recent measures

From 2008, F.C.E.R. – C.A.P.I. develops Projects founded from international funds (World Monuments Fund, Jewish Heritage Program, U.S.A. commission for Preserving American Heritage Abroad etc.) and updates data referring to the sacred Jewish patrimony by collaboration with the Historic Center C.S.I.E.R. with organizations and forums from the country and abroad, such as “Lo Tishkach” Foundation, which strict purpose is the preservation of Jewish heritage in Europe (Jewish cemeteries, common tombs and memorials).

By the strategic Program of rehabilitating sacred Jewish patrimony (88 synagogues and 821 cemeteries):

  • was prepared a list of 10 synagogues in danger;
  • there is detected supplemental financial source for rehabilitating and conserving Jewish heritage from the E.U. and other internationals(8 interdisciplinary projects for synagogue and 2 projects financed from U.S.A. funding);
  • preparation of an identification Program of the synagogues which lost their function as religious home by rabbinic approbation, accommodation, hire, partnership;
  • a contract was prepared – a framework loan according to the indications of the Great Rabin, in base of what different functions / cultural activities were rehabilitated: Bistrița (Historical Monument, built in 1856) – music hall for over 20 years; Mediaș(built in 1896) – for 3 years in partnership agreement with the Eminescu Foundation; Orăștie (Historical Monument, built in 1878) – Cultural Center with the Town Hall, for 15 years; Târgoviște (Historical Monument, built in 1880) – space for the Târgoviște University, for 20 years; Timișoara – Citadel (National Historical Monument, built in 1865) – music hall; Timișoara – Fabric – useful space for the National Theatre, for 30 years; Gherla, accommodate for the town hall on long term;
  • the registration of many buildings of the sacred Jewish heritage is being track (including cemeteries) as historical monuments, to become eligible for getting funds from the States and base for obtaining supplementary funds from different sources, but there will be identified those constructions too which will be downgraded as Historical Monuments;
  • the establishment and activation of an itinerary made from the Romanian Jewish heritages and integration of this in the international and national touristic circuit (project of international collaboration).

“For the carrying out of these goals, it was decided that a consultative commission of the F.C.E.R.’s economic patrimony has to be funded”, constituted in the year of 2009 by the representatives of the F.C.E.R., for the communities, specialists and professional experts from JDC, F.C.E.R. in the field of finances.

Capitalization of the Jewish patrimony by new constructions

Above the theoretical background and these concrete elements, the architectural patrimony (and especially the Jewish ones) put some problems regarding to the reconstructions, conservation and rehabilitation, already being traditional:

  • These are highly cost procedures (old houses absorb money like vacuum cleaners) and the actual Romanian society’s resources limit the amount financed from the States part.
  • Once the operation is closed, a non-used building degrades very quickly – that is why the management of the F.C.E.R. expects at least the planning of museums in restored synagogues.
  • A patrimony without an active community and important resources is in danger of extinction, without any enhancement – situation visible for us with bare eyes.

In addition, by these concerns, lately a new idea apparently “heretic” in traditional vision, emerged reevaluation of the historical patrimonies by new constructions. There are a number of PhD themes, projects and researches going on regarding this topic.

If this edification is made in the spirit of regulation and in fundamental perception (including the underground etc.), the advantages are obvious:

  • Historical value continues to live in a new aggregate.
  • The new working manner makes it free to sustain a restoration, conservation, and quality rehabilitation.
  • The new aggregates are in a new urban-architectural scale, which is in fact accomplished anyway.
  • The Jewish patrimony is a predestined case, including, as it is located, ordinarily, in important and central zones.

In our program, it was initiated a research that is illustrated until now by:

  • Projects in the subjects Design Synthesis year IV(Cluj-Napoca Barițiu and Turda street);
  • Diploma project of ORBAN GYORGY ;
  • Diploma project of JULEAN IONUT ;
  • Scientific writings and articles

The confrontational moment with the similar researches of other fellows is coming closer, with the cultural and scientifically environment, nevertheless, with the public.

Jewish cultural tourism and the virtual

From the entrance of the airport gates in Czech Republic, you are encountered with tourists guide, videos, CD-s, DVD-s or leaflets presenting the Jewish Prague (synagogue, old cemeteries where you can find Golem etc.).

In Poland, Krakow is marked by the sign of Judaism starting from religious monuments, throughout gastronomy and little confectioneries where you wait for the Fiddler on the Roof, beside of these the most visible is the circuits of the bearings.

In Hungary where are the closest examples of rehabilitating and conversions of patrimony buildings and the historically improved part of Budapest also offers masses in the neology manner.

Worldwide, it is developing, besides the Jewish centers, a new architectural program – Holocaust museums and in other cities such as Chicago Jewish museums incite for participation, reliving the times and traditional crafts through interaction and workshops.

It is a characteristic of the postmodern times in which architecture (in affiliation witticism “one picture = a thousand words”) becomes a resource and due to cultural reasons they produce large touristic migrations.

In face of stupefaction by labor from the beginning of Industrial era, the Postindustrial age reduces programmatically the time of work and by this, the free time expands, but this cannot be used successfully anymore only by doing different kinds of activities.

The increase of life in our population brings other travelers that have completed their work and now they want to enjoy the active part of their pension/retirement.

Accomplished people start to look for their “roots” and begin to find their family links from the early generations that will form in true pilgrimages to places where their ancestors lived. The genealogical forums flourish and the field experts too, who reconstruct those so-called “family tree”-s and the locations of the extended branches.

From here came those huge cultural tourism migrations in our time, bringing to the forefront of architecture as "the book of humanity" and replanting of urban images and architectural configurations to return home.

After 1989, the tourism grew sensible by targeting Jewish memory from Romania, an important segment from this originating from those whose families are originally from here. We believe that the attachment not only of the “Jewish earthlings” has not been sufficiently revealed towards Romania but also almost all others and as Ezekiel has created, in the Babylonian exile, his splendid imaginary TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM and left Jews from those lands has connected their descendants childhoods with stories about a wonderful country.

On the other hand, we have to remember that the main source of strength and great character in the Jewish communities is the obligation of memory and the worship of graves. All of these compete (we were requested to guide representative families for 2-3 generations) for a domain with great perspective, if it is provided at least a minimal infrastructure (especially for those from North America who are effectively desperate during the first half of the day when health groups are not appropriate).

Romanian peculiarities were, until now, the followings: an impressive architectural patrimony, a surviving population of the Second World War much more important than in the neighboring countries but which has diminished and become old quickly by emigration, Romania is one of the few states that have maintained diplomatic relations with the Hebrew State, sometimes mediating between the Middle East and promoting Alia (pecuniary aspects transcending reality more or less sordid), a state of chronic poverty and solicitude which has made clear the option between people and monuments in time when resources were allocated by Joint, with the result that today the predominant situation has become extremely vulnerable by the fact that it remained without a community (in provinces, in most of the communities there are still real events, birth of children or graduate ceremonies). For this patrimony, the cultural and religious tourism could be a component of income destined for restoration, conservation and maintenance.

In face of the vision up to now, with a possible restoration and conversion of Hebrew heritage destined for current local communities, we plead for development through new investments by which at least one area would include some of the functions from the following:

  • Specific Jewish hotels or guest houses;
  • Rehabilitation of ritual bath;
  • Ritual restaurants, cafes with specific artistic program featuring Hebrew culture from that the area;
  • Souvenir shops and products complying with the percepts of rituals;
  • Local community museums and, where appropriate, of the Holocaust;
  • Cultural centers with opened valances, even multicultural;
  • Rehabilitation of the cemetery chapels with an architectural or historical value;
  • Planning the visiting route of the cemetery (including the map of the tombs – as it was made, in an older research project, at the neology cemetery from Cluj-Napoca);
  • Cultural and artistic programs in different time schedules;
  • Medical tourism and cure;

Besides these improvements in the infrastructure, it will be vital to apply for the European and international programs, entry with this kind of offers to the network of local and international travel agencies, development of close circuit, providing transport, including rent-a-car, computerization of these services, providing comprehensive services.

So far, the model in the field for such material remains Ruth Ellen Gruber information, with whom I had the pleasure to work in the past, the author of the book JEWISH HERITAGE TRAVEL – A Guide to East-Central Europe, reedited, reviewed and updated periodically.


Romania is treated in approximately 42 pages in the edition we have: A little History; For the Traveler; Jewish Heritage in Romania; Bucharest; Elsewhere in Romania (Alba Iulia, Arad, Bacău, Baia Mare, Botoșani, Buhuși, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Dorohoi, Fălticeni, Iași, Piatra Neamț, Rădăuți, Satu Mare, Sighet (Sughetu Marmației), Siret, Suceava, Timișoara, Târgu Mureș, Târgu Neamț); Hotels/Restaurants.

Our team from the “PROGRAMUL PARTENERIATE” has an important pre-emption in this future dominium by the accumulated data, coordinate maps drawn (conform the last standards as offers and familiarity to international environment), exemplary cooperation and support of specialized services of the Federation Mosaic Communities, contacts with other communities from the country, helped by the Hebrew Museum in Bucharest and the Institute for afferent Research, contacts with academic institutions devoted to Jewish studies in Romania and in abroad.

Our project of cultural tourism is offered in the final stage of the research program and involves:

  • Lists, interactive maps and hyperlinks related to the Jewish cultural patrimony from Romania
  • Interactive maps and hyperlinks with communities and brotherhoods in operation in Romania
  • Interactive maps and hyperlinks to places of worship in Romania Hebrew
  • Interactive maps and links with Hebrew cemeteries in Romania.
  • Hyperlinks with the proposals of use of the Hebrew heritage of Romania
  • Maps with proposals for tourist routes in Romania
  • Interactive maps with proposal routes by field of cultural artistic domains or by Hebrew Romanian artists - exemplified by Marcel Iancu architecture of Omani Architecture nr. 1/2011, p.138-139 but it can be developed for other personalities or artistic institutions.


  • - xxx, CONGRESUL al II-lea al Federației Comunităților Evreiești din România – SINTEZA RAPORTULUI GENERAL privind activitatea F.C.E.R., în perioada septembrie 2005 – iunie 2010, LUAH-5771 Calendar 2010-2011, Supliment al revistei REALITATEA EVREIASCA, ISSN 1223-7736;
  • - VAINER, Aurel, SA FIM INSCRISI IN CARTEA VIETII! MESAJUL DE ROS HASANA 5771, LUAH-5771 Calendar 2010-2011, Supliment al revistei REALITATEA EVREIASCA, ISSN 1223-7736;
  • - VAINER, Aurel, UN AN NOU CU SĂNĂTATE, PACE ȘI ÎMPLINIRI!, LUAH-5772 Calendar 2011-2012, Supliment al revistei REALITATEA EVREIASCA, ISSN 1223-7736;

Works of the Author in this Field:

  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, ESTETICA, Universitatea Tehnică UTCN, Cluj-Napoca, 1993.
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, STRUCTURAL MORPHOLOGY- AN APPROACH IN THE STUDY OF ARCHITECTURE, ACTA TECHNICA NAPOCENSIS/ Section: Civil Engineering- Architecture, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, vol. 35/1992, pag. 5-10;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH, CONSTRUCTIONS 2000, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 1993, volume 3, pag.883-889;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Modernism și postmodernism arhitectural, vol. Pagini de artă modernă și contemporană, MUZEUL ȚĂRII CRIȘURILOR/ ASOCIAȚIA ISTORICILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA ȘI BANAT/ FACULTATEA DE ISTORIE ȘI FILOSOFIE CLUJ-NAPOCA, Oradea, 1996, pag. 289-303;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Matematică și arhitectură, Revista Arhitext Design, București, Nr. 9-10/1999, pag. 63-64;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, JULEAN, Ionut, Mutații generate de utilizarea computerului în metodica cercetării în istoria arhitecturii, ICEGD 2009, Cluj-Napoca;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, GRAMA, Nicolae Elemente de etică profesională în arhitectură și urbanism, Ed. Universitară «Ion Mincu», București,2006.


  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Jewish Architectural Contributions in Cluj-Napoca, STUDIA JUDAICA I, Ed. Gloria, Cluj-Napoca, 1991, pag. 104-111;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Moshe Carmilly-Weinberger- FEAR OF ART/ Censorship and Freedom of Expression in Art, revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 51-52, decembrie 1992/ ianuarie 1993, pag. 5, recenzie (24);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea Sergiu, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH, CONSTRUCTIONS 2000, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 1993, volume 3, pag.883-889;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Gazda Aniko ș.a.- MAGYARORSZAGI ZSINAGOGAK, STUDIA JUDAICA II, Ed. Sincron, Cluj-Napoca, 1993, pag. 169-170, recenzie (29);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, STUDIA JUDAICA nr. I, TRANSYLVANIAN REVIEW, Cluj-Napoca, Vol. III, no.2 (Summer, 1994), pag. 157-159, recenzie (30);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, O carte de mare interes: Moshe Carmilly Weinberger: ISTORIA EVREILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA (1623-1944), Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 45-46/noiembrie 1994, pag. 4, recenzie (31);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Wigoder Geoffrey- The Story of the Synagogue. A Diaspora Museum Book, ARS TRANSSILVANIAE IV, Editura Academiei Române, Cluj-Napoca, 1994, pag. 224-225, recenzie (33);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Carol Iancu- Emanciparea evreilor din România (1913-1919), Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 7/februarie 1995, pag. 8, recenzie (36);
  • M., M.,  Studia Judaica III, Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 13/martie 1995, pag. 2, recenzie (37);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Mituri, rituri și obiecte rituale iudaice, Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 13/martie 1995, pag. 7-8, recenzie (38);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Moshe Carmilly-Weinberger: ISTORIA EVREILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA, 1623-1944, STUDIA JUDAICA IV, Cluj-Napoca, 1995, pag. 133-138, recenzie (41);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, CIMITIRE EVREIEȘTI DIN TRANSILVANIA, Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 11/martie 1996, pag. 12;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Carol Iancu (coord.)- PERMANENCES ET MUTATIONS DANS LA SOCIETE ISRAELIENNE, Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 25/iunie 1996, pag. 13, recenzie (42);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, EXPRESIA ARHITECTURALĂ A MONOTEISMULUI ȘI REZONANȚA SA TRANSILVANĂ, Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 43/octombrie 1996, pag. 12-13;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Carol Iancu- PERMANENCES ET MUTATIONS DANS LA SOCIETE ISRAELIENNE, STUDIA JUDAICA V, Ed. Sincron, Cluj-Napoca, 1996, pag.218-221, recenzie (43);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, MONOTEISM: Expresie arhitecturală șI rezonanță actuală, Revista Arhitext Design, București, Nr. 12/1996, pag. 45- 48;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, A LONG-EXPECTED BOOK: SINAGOGI DIN ROMÂNIA, STUDIA JUDAICA VI, Editura Sincron, Cluj-Napoca, 1997, pag. 220-223, recenzie (44);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Iluminismul evreiesc și arhitectura sa, Revista Arhitext Design, București, Nr. 1/1988, pag. 24-28;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Evreii în România (1919-1938), Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr.2-3-1998, pag. 6;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, De la Carol Iancu la Tristan Janco firul Ariadnei - memoria, Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr.52/1999, pag.16-17;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, TRANSYLVANIA’S PLACE IN THE JEWISH ARCHITECTURAL PATRIMONY IN ROMANIA, THE JEWS IN THE ROMANIAN HISTORY, Institutul de Istorie “Nicolae Iorga”, Casa de Editură, Presă și Impresariat, București, 2000, pag. 40-45;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Obiecte rituale iudaice în România, Revista Tribuna, Cluj-Napoca, Nr.45-48/2001, pag.7-8, (recenzie);
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, A Newcomer in the Academic Family: the Maimonide Euro-Mediterraneean Academic Institute of Montpellier, STUDIA JUDAICA X, Ed. Fundației pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2001, pag. 219-221;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Obiecte rituale iudaice, Revista Logia, Cluj-Napoca, Nr. 5/2002, pag. 92-93;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, Oradea comme une Florence juive au seuil du notre siecle, la „LES JUIFS EN ROUMANIE AUX XIXe ET Xxe SIECLES: PERMANENCES ET RUPTURES”, Congres international, Montpellier, Universite Paul Valery, 25-27 septembre 2000, text publicat în volumul PERMANENCES ET RUPTURES DANS LHISTOIRE DES JUIFS DE ROUMANIE (XIXE-Xxe siecles), Universite Montpellier III, 2004, ISBN 2-84269-510-0, ISSN 090-2813, pag. 117-126;
  • MOLDOVAN, Mircea, AGACHI, Ioana, CONSTRUCȚII MODERNE ÎN IERUSALIM, Revista Orașul, Nr. 3/2006, pag. 33-35;



Anexa 1 B


  • xxx, THE JEWS IN THE ROMANIAN HISTORY, Institutul de Istorie “Nicolae Iorga”, Casa de Editură, Presă și Impresariat, București, 2000, 1 lucrare ca autor unic la pag. 40-45;
  • xxx, PERMANENCES ET RUPTURES DANS L’HISTOIRE DES JUIFS DE ROUMANIE (XIXE-XXe siecles), Universite Montpellier III, 2004, ISBN 2-84269-510-0, ISSN 090-2813, 1 lucrare ca autor unic;
  • FORNADE, Dan, PERSONALITATI CLUJENE (1800-2007), dictionar ilustrat, CASA CARTII DE STIINTA, Cluj-Napoca, 2007, pag. 337, collaborator si referent.


  • GYEMANT, Ladislau, THE “Dr. MOSHE CARMILLY” INSTITUTE FOR HEBREW AND JEWISH HISTORY, 1993-1994, STUDIA JUDAICA III, Ed. Sincron, Cluj-Napoca, 1994, pag. 193 (M. M. - titularul cursului Istoria arhitecturii evreiești șI cercetător);
  • CARMILLY-WEINBERGER, Moshe, ISTORIA EVREILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA (1623-1994), EDITURA ENCICLOPEDICĂ, București, 1994, pag. 99 (M. M.- Jewish architectural contributions in Cluj-Napoca și A no longer existing synagogue in Cluj);
  • GYEMANT, Ladislau, THE “DR. MOSHE CARMILLY” INSTITUTE FOR HEBREW AND JEWISH HISTORY 1994/1995, STUDIA JUDAICA IV, Ed. Sincron, Cluj-Napoca, 1995, pag. 146  (M. M.- titularul cursului Artă și arhitectură evreiască);
  • GYEMANT, Ladislau, The “Dr. Moshe Carmilly” Institute for Hebrew and Jewish History 1995-1996, STUDIA JUDAICA V, Ed. Sincron, Cluj-Napoca, 1996, pag. 225 (M. M.- titularul cursului Istoria artei evreiești);
  • GYEMANT, Ladislau, THE ACTIVITY OF THE “DR. MOSHE CARMILLY” INSTITUTE FOR HEBREW AND JEWISH HISTORY IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1996/1997, STUDIA JUDAICA VI, Ed. Sincron, Cluj-Napoca, 1997, pag. 225  (M. M.- titularul cursului de istoria artei evreiești);
  • GYEMANT, Ladislau, THE ACTIVITY OF THE “DR. MOSHE CARMILLY” INSTITUTE FOR HEBREW AND JEWISH HISTORY IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1997/1998, STUDIA JUDAICA VII, Ed. Sincron, Cluj-Napoca, 1998, (M. M.- titularul cursului de istoria artei evreiești);